The Exam Pattern of the UPSC Civil Services IAS Prelims Examination
The Prelims Examination is an Objective type of Examination with Multiple Choice Questions (the candidate has to choose an option from the given options for that question). This examination consists of two papers namely Paper I and Paper II. ThePaper I contains 200 marks and Paper II also contains 200 marks. The Duration for Paper I is 2 hours as well as Paper II is also 2 hours. The exam Pattern of the UPSC Civil Services IAS Prelims Examination is as follows:
|Name of the Paper||No. of Questions||Duration Given||Marks.|
|Paper I: General Studies.||100||2 Hours.||200|
|Paper II: Aptitude.||80||2 Hours.||200|
Note: The marks which are secured in the prelims are only for qualifying the Mains Examination. It is not counted to determine the order of merit. The Qualifying marks for Paper II: Aptitude is 33%. But the candidates will be promoted to the Mains only based on the Qualifying marks in Paper I: General Studies.
The Mains Examination is a written Examination. It consists of 9 Papers out of which 2 are Qualifying in nature namely Paper A and Paper B; remaining 7 papers which are namely Paper I to Paper VII which are based on Ranking. The Questions will be available in Hindi as well as English in the Question Papers.
|S.No.||Name of the Paper.||Name of the Subject.||Marks.|
|1.||Paper-A.||Modern Indian Language. (Qualifying Paper).||300.|
|2.||Paper-B.||English (Qualifying Paper).||300.|
|8.||Paper-VI.||Optional Subject (Paper-1).||250.|
|9.||Paper-VII.||Optional Subject (Paper-2).||250.|
The Final Ranking of the candidates: This is done based on the marks obtained in theMains and the Interview.
The preliminary examination of UPSC is for screening purpose only. It is also known as CSAT. The marks obtained in the UPSC prelims examination amount to a qualification to take the UPSC Main examination and will not be counted for determining a candidate's final order of merit.
The Main examination of UPSC is designed to test a candidate's academic expertise and ability to present his/her knowledge in a consistent manner. The UPSC Mains exam intends to assess the overall intellectual traits and understanding of concept by the candidates.
Syllabus of the Written Examination: The standard of the paper in General English will be such as may be expected of a Science Graduate. The papers on geological subjects (Geology, Geophysics, Chemistry & Hydrogeology) will be approximate of the MSc degree standard of an Indian University and questions will generally be set to test the candidate’s grasp of the fundamentals in each subject.
Qualifying nature: Marks not counted, Passing mandatory
Note 1: The Papers on Indian Languages and English will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.
Note 2: The candidates will have to answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where translation is involved).
Qualifying nature: Marks not counted, passing mandatory
The aim of the paper is to test the candidates' ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.
The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:-
(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)
Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)
(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)
Interview/Personality Test - 275 Marks
Candidate can give preference of the language in which they may like to be interviewed. UPSC will make arrangement for the translators.
In the Civil Services Examination 2017, the minimum qualifying standards/marks secured by the last recommended candidate in various categories at various stages are as under:-
*Cut off marks on the basis of GS Paper-I only. GS Paper-II was of qualifying nature with 33% marks as per Rule-15 of Civil Services Examination, 2017.
# Subject to 10% marks in each of the seven competitive papers i.e. Essay, GS-I, GS-II, GS-III, GS-IV, Optional-I and Optional-II.
How to read ( recommended approach ) 1st Reading The first time you’re reading the books, read them like a novel. Highlight the important points using a highlighter ( in case of ebook ) or a pencil ( Hard copy ) . Keep a dictionary handy. If you come across any difficult word, look it up immediately. If you don’t understand a specific concept, use Google and read up about it.
Note On highlighting ( how to know what to highlight )
It’s important that you know what information to highlight and what to ignore. This can be done by analyzing previous question papers. Analyzing previous year’s question papers will help you understand the type of questions asked under each topic. For instance, if you’re studying about the various Government schemes and policies, you should focus on advantages & disadavantages of the policy, need for that policy and its approach. if you’re studying about a specific industry, your focus should be on the location of the industry, the factors affecting its location, challenges faced, opportunities and its current situation
Give a gap of about 2 to 3 days after your first reading, before you begin your second reading. During your 2nd reading, ignore the unwanted details and focus on the notes you had highlighted during your 1st reading. It’s a good idea to try and recall whatever you learnt your 1st reading before revising each chapter.
Not that you’re done with your second reading it’s time to summarize what you have studies. The 3rd reading should be relatively faster than the 1st and 2nd. During the 3rd reading, glance through each chapters’ Highlighted parts. Try and relate the concepts you’re studying to current affairs, and connect the dots.
An IAS officer is perceived to have ample and sufficient knowledge to deal with any sorts of problems ranging from daily chores to peculiar problems. He/She should be well l versed with all possible subject matters. Hence, in light of all these, it can be concluded that an elementary level knowledge pertaining to all themes and substances should be imbibed in an IAS officer. Therefore, subject matters of secondary level should from the foundation of an IAS aspirant.
Realistically specifying, there can never be a fixed number of prescribed books. Uniformity can never be maintained at least in mentioning the number of books to be referred. Some likes to read from internet, some likes to refer coaching institutes, notes, even some would like to prescribe only standard NCERT books and some may go for amalgamation of all these sources.
What all books, which all sources and how many in number solely depends upon the comfort and ease of candidates. These vary from time to time from aspirant to aspirant and from experienced to naïve candidates.
Reading the complete newspaper – In a newspaper, there are hardly 5 -6 important news on daily basis which are relevant for Civil Services aspirant. But we tend to read even non – relevant news as well. Nowadays, UPSC has shifted its orientation from static portion to dynamic in which current affairs plays major role. Direct questions from newspapers are part of prelims as well as mains. Most significant role of newspaper is evident in GS2 and GS3 of main examination Few important pints related to newspaper reading :
Going through the exam syllabus will give you a brief idea about the kind of resources/ study material you will need for your preparation. Keep your sources minimal and follow the best source available.
Follow Government websites like, Income Tax Department, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of External Affairs, etc. for authentic information.
These websites are periodically updated with annual reports. Gather and analyze previous year UPSC CSE Exam question papers ( at least last 10 years )
If you measure the worth of the journey by the fact that whether you reached the destination or not, you are doing a great disservice to the journey itself. So whether you become an IAS or not, it hardly matters. But once you undertake this journey one thing is for sure, you will not be the same person again. Let us tell you why. This exam brings about a transformational change in person. It makes you aware of so many things that no other exam can. It makes you a far better person than you already are. It makes you empathetic to the plight of the downtrodden and needy millions. It makes you balanced in your outlook and approach You will always be ahead in life after preparing for this exam. You will be able to learn how our past affects our present and our future. You will become a highly intellectual person who could take about anything in highly effective manner. It changes your perspective on how you see things. You will not judge people on how they act, but will learn why they act in that manner Every side has two story. CSE will give you enough perspective to see both sides!
First of all, know the eligibility criteria of the IAS exam. The aspirant should be a Graduate in any subject. To apply the age of the applicant should be between 21 – 32 , if general categories.
Before scheduling your exam preparations, decide which time suits you for contented learning, either a day time or the peaceful night time. Additionally allot your peak timings for crispy topics, so that may increase your memorizing level and parallel saves your revising time
Decide whether, you are morning person or an evening person. If Morning, then prepare for hard and difficult subjects in the morning. Leave your coaching or revision activities for the evening. Give your best at that time when you feel the most productive.
At a complete stretch no one can be attentive in our planet for more than 2 hours. for every half hour, relax yourself and utilize your time resourcefully. Give yourself in between breaks. Also, if you feel that you cannot give more then try to utilize that time by either feeling refreshed or watching some informative videos. Which could help you in the exam. After making so many works to the edge of success. Have you ever know what pulls you down when everything is perfect? Probably it could be the time management . Hence decide to try time management and you can achieve your targets by knowing time management build up.
Ask yourself : What do you need to do to achieve this ? Write it down ! These are your study goals. Can they be achieved ? If so, what do you need to do ? This may include various goal setting activities in order to achieve your study objectives. If not why not ? What is stopping you ? How can this be overcome? By breaking your study goals down into manageable study tasks, by setting performance goals, you will be better able to asses where you should apply your energies most
The benefits of students setting study goals and study tasks are numerous. Your study immediately becomes more productive as you know exactly what you should be doing, when you should be doing the it and how long it will take you. You will get a better return on investment than if you simply opened a book and started to study a topic. You become more productive and your study is of higher quality – it ‘s a win – win. Students who set study goals and objective are guaranteed to perform better an get better results as they can focus on the study goals they have se t themselves and action to achieve those study goals.
Students who set study goals and objective are guaranteed to perform better an get better results as they can focus on the study goals they have se t themselves and action to achieve those study goals.
Getting organised is the first step you will need to achieve exam success, so make sure you invest the time at the beginning in outlining what you need to do , and importantly , why you want to achieve it be setting goals which are achievable and manageable
Time management is a significant in academics part; however most of students come to know this, only at the time when they face failures. Usually people plan about time management for their exam preparations with eagerness at beginning moment, but in most cases eventually they fail to follow their time management.
Especially in CSE, if one doesn’t knows about time management, then the chance of cracking examination is less. It’s a simple strategy of effective time utilization their tasks and that makes them to get success.
Whenever you start your exam preparation make an advance plan before a week, month and year, keeping in mind all the three stages of the exams. Although following time difficult and make you frustrated. But once you stick with it, then to your surprise, it becomes routing gradually.
Better note it, CSE is tough examination to crack. Whoever, told you that this will easy was lying. It’s difficult but not impossible to crack. Students are grappled by the anxiety as to how, much time to give for studying in this examination.
Toppers and success candidates say that they studied for 16 hrs. and much more some might even say that they found the examination process very easy and thus they did not had to contribute more than 6 -7 hrs.
How much time to give for daily studying solely depends on an individual. It does not depend on the time but rather on the concentration level that you will be putting. Most students who have higher IQ might have to still retain most of the stuff, whereas some students have to work extraordinarily hard
Don’t go by the time that you friends are giving to daily preparation. Don’t over try and also don’t work under. Maximize the time that you are giving. Try to utilize the time that you are spending on the studies. like Arjun whose eyes were on the target, you should also study in the same manner. Just see how much time it requires you to fulfill your daily targets and then you can calculated how much time you need dedicate for your studies
Best IAS coaching bound you to study in a positive an disciplined manner. They’ll guide you to the best way to crack the exam. They’ll train you, what to study from the IAS syllabus, what are the essential topics being asked frequently in previous years little tricks to solve the questions in the exam, all the things
many aspirants who come for coaching, do this one mistake which becomes too risky for them. At the time of initial preparation, they decide to attend as many coaching at that time. So they could save time from going to different institutes and also their preparation comes to quicker halt.
What happens is that, an aspirants then run pillar to pillar in various coaching institutes attending different lectures. He/ She jots down the notes, attend classes but at the end of day, they are too tired to even revise. And thus, they continue with the cycle for many months. At the end, when course ends, and they go back to their home town, they realize, that they have many doubts which now cannot be solved. Some of the things which they thought they understood at that time, now seem vague and ambivalent.
Its like starting afresh again. Thus, aspirants seem to miss the whole point of coaching – mentoring and solving their doubts. So, it’s better to study at your pace rather to complete all the course at once. Think, how much time it will require you to study one particular course. An d then go for simultaneous coaching .
Are the study material of the coaching institute reliable ? Can they be the path to your success ? It cannot be answered in Yes or No. Because it works for some and it might not work for you Coaching material or handwritten notes by toppers are both important. They have their relevance. They can guide you when you are self – studying. However, it all depends on the quality of the material. Whether it has been updates or not or from which coaching institute it has originated.
Hand written notes give you self - confidence and under standing as Civil Service exam is based like engineering or academics. So only your understanding and clarity matter.
If you are familiar with the syllabus and can judicially select what to read, printed material will go well. Hand written notes at time are difficult to understand and read because it comprehended by the person who has attended live classes and may not be legible.
Thus, it may lack all relevant information about a topic
Handwritten notes at best can be used to get a brief idea of what all has been taught in the class
As a beginner starting from point zero one can buy previous years question paper module and attempt some questions daily, moreover the questions from NCERT to will help
Start writing answers as and when you study, don’t wait for the whole or even sufficient amount of syllabus to be finished.
Say you are studying polity and finished President, soon after, check previous year’s papers on this topic and try to answer as many as you wish, you could pick a single question that is the easiest for you and start answering on a piece of paper. You might not able to answer question that involve president and the prime minister as you wouldn’t have covered the latter yet. You can skin such questions for later.
Answer writing is an important aspect of UPSC civil services exam.
While prelims is only the qualifying exam which separates the grain from the chaff i.e. serious candidates from non-serious candidates, its marks are not added for creating the merit list. Mains exams is worth 1750 marks spanning over 7 papers ( 4 papers of GS, Two papers of Optional, and 1 paper of Essay ). Also there are two qualifying papers of languages which one must write nonetheless even though their marks are not counted in the final list. Since success in Main evidently depends on one’s ability to write close to 100 questions and some 24000 words in all the papers, it is of absolute necessity that one develops the articulation necessary for writing meaningful, to the point and concise answers In the previous era of UPSC exam ( read before pattern change in 2013 ). UPSC used to ask lower no of questions and lesser words to write. There was comfortable time pressure and hence it was possible to try and frame answers in the exam hall itself. But after the pattern change. UPSC asks 20-25 question with 200-250 words to write in each answer.
Sure, they emphasise that the content of the answer is more important than its length in the instruction, still you have to think on the spot and create a mental framework for 20 – 25 questions then and there in the exam hall. And if you don’t practice before hand and that too intensively, you might spend 1-2 mins on creating a framework on each question. That means anywhere between 25-50 mins only on answer framing ! So, you are left with very less amount of time to actually write the answer. This is the biggest issue as far as not writing an answer is concerned. Writing answers also helps in organizing and prioritising your though process. You learn to put forward what exactly is asked and not what you know. You learn to write meat of the argument and not beat around the bush. Last but not the least writing helps in internalising information and in better retention than only reading.
So for the process part one should begin by writing answers or previous year question papers. In addition to giving you adequate answer practice they also help you understanding the exam pattern and the demand of the exam very well. After finishing with previous year’s papers one should move on to writing answers on websites and other sources. As the mains exam approaches one should start taking mock test and get them evaluated.
So a tentative timeline could be :
Handwriting is important but not the most important factor. For mains, presentation is everything. How much you know matters less in comparison to the following factors:
You need to worry only if your handwriting is illegible. If it is so, please give due importance to improve the same. Dedicating 20-3- minutes a day for cursive writing will make a world of difference. You may or may not get extra marks if you have very good handwriting. But you are sure to lose out, if your handwriting is illegible.Here are a few tips to improve the presentation and readability of your answer :
A good strategy for Essay paper has three parts. The first two part ( four hours out of six hours ) are like sharpening the exe and the last part is performance during the essay paper.Part 1 : Reading from apt sources
You have studied hard. You know everything, so what can you do to score high in the mains examination.
These are the following points which can create wonders for your answer writing.
Being your preparation early, preferably within a fortnight or a month of completion of the main examination. Do not wait for the results of the examination. If you could not do so in this window of time, then begin at the earliest. The first phase of preparation can start with a more purposive reading of newspapers and magazinesCurrent Affairs and Social Issues
The issues of national and international importance and even those of regional or local signification often from the nucleus around which the interview revolve. Getting a good grasp of such issues is of essence. However, the focus in interview is not on mere facts and figures, but more on issues, their appreciation and analysis.
Such articles are often found in the editorial page of the top national dailies, which must be perused properly and comprehended fully. To give a wider coverage to their preparation, aspirants must go through a couple of national dailies. Similarly, one must read at least one good news magazine.
Note – making It should be very precise as well as concise. Once has gone through the article, one must reflect on it and ask oneself, is it of relevance to me? If yes, then is it worth making a note or can I mentally summarise the essence of article and possibly remember it till the interviw stage? Am I in agreement with what is stated in the article ? If not, why? Always en-deavour to analyse the viewpoint expressed . Does the viewpoint conform to logic and reasoning? Is it falling within the constitutional and legal framework
How is it for the larger good of our nation and its people? Thus, develop your own perspective Identify the most important points which the article is emphasising upon. Note such three to five salient points in a small note book/spiral pad/ memo page of your smart phone. Revise them whenever you catch a few moments of spare time during the day
Television too is an important aid for preparation. However, exercise discretion in what and how much television you should watch it is advisable to switch to prime time news on national channels like, Doordarshan, Rajya – Sabha TV, Lok – Sabha TV, NDTV, etc. look out for those programmes which carry views and opinion of eminent people. Listening to all India Radio ( FM Gold) and programmes like News at Nine, Market Mantra ( economic news programme ) and Spotlingt ( news analysis programmes) are equality good options
Internet has emerged as a viable option for all of the above and more. Besides reading news papers, magazines watching/ hearing news programmes etc. internet resources are rather valuable while working in areas related to one’s personal profile ( DAF). Further, good articles can easily be saved in soft form or important capsules of article be compile. However, beware, net surfing can be addictive and at times a drain on your time.
This phase of preparation is also an opportunity to widen your horizons of thought by reading good books, particularly non-function. Target at least a couple of books per month. Books authored by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, RamchandraGuha, Narayan Nikani. Etc. Which reflect on word issues, India and its society economy, polity etc. are definitely good value for time. Besides, do look out for specific books pertaining to areas of your interest, hobbies, state of domicile, or even those connected with the discipline of your current job/occupation.Advise of seniors
Also look out to meet successful candidates of past year experts/ seniors etc from the field you work or study in. you can also read the blogs of previous year’s toppers. Joining a coaching institute or a guidance programme for the interview is not a must, particularly if one has had in the past an experience of such an interview programme or of the UPSC interview itself. However, for first timers, such programmes may make some value addition. But do join only with the feedback/ recommendation of candidate or a person who has a first-hand knowledge of the coaching institute/ guidance programme, lest it becomes a millstone around your neck
The IAS bug catches everyone; school kids, undergraduates, graduates, doctorates, as also working people among them. After all, Civil Services is one of the most prestigious careers in India one can aspire for.
But, working people face some unique constraints when they decide to jump into the IAS bandwagon. Constraints of time, resources energy, focus and responsibilities. Those preparing for civil services exam full time are to a large extent free of such constraints
It creates the question whether we should give our whole time to this preparation or can we work alongside and prepare ?
However, not all these constraints are hurdles. Some are blessings in disguise while others can be over with the right planning and effort. After all when we are determined how can when we are determined how can a 9 – 6 job stop us from realizing our goal?
Though. Working people don’t have the luxury of dedicating 15 hours daily to IAS preparation. Nor is it require. Instead, get smart with your preparation. Instead of trying to cover the entire syllabus, be selective. Pick the sections that are easy to score cover.
For prelims these topics include current affairs, maps, polity, comprehension, passage, decision making, and statistics. These topics are easy to score off and can be prepared while traveling and in your free time just while preparing in your study time.
If possible keep a copy of India Year book and Student Atlasing your bag so you can quickly reference some facts while traveling or in your lunch time.
Another way to make the most of available time is to read the newspaper or a good magazine in your free time. So you can see having less time is no reason to not prepare for the IAS. By making the right use of limited time. You can turn this seeming liability into an asset. Leave the more time consuming topics like Science, History etc. to weekend and holiday or early morning schedule.
For facing Prelims Ganeral Studies Paper I, they need to be well aware and well help them in attempting a large number of questions. It involves both clarity about the basics as well as abreast of current affairs and contemporary developments. It includes areas like Indian National Movement, Indian Polity, Basic Economic Understanding, Current Affairs, Science and Technology, etc. While the dynamic part includes Current Affairs, GK has no proper definition and syllabus making it quite vast subject. Since the syllabus does not give much detail of the topics to be studied under each subject it is expected to gain knowledge of them that should be slightly below the graduation level but definitely above the high school level.
There are about 100 questions to be answered in two hours, each question carries two marks. It means there is about 1.2 minute to answer each question. So speed and accuracy is essential to tackle this examination. While the correct answer will fetch 2 marks, a wrong answer a loss of 0.66 marks i.e. 1/3rd from the correct tally of score.
The 100 questions in Paper I can be grouped into three categories:
The number of questions asked from different sections varies each time and there is no fixed rule for this. The nature of questions asked are generally on basic principles, their application, factual information and current affairs. Some questions are based on applied aspects of principles and factual information. It has been found that many of the questions overlap with more than one section of the syllabus.
The answer to the question requires analytical bend. So mere reading of NCERT high school text books is now insufficient for the preparation of the prelims and in depth reading is required to handle such question. The best way should be to adopt an integrated approach for preparation combining it with Mains, and one should make efforts to understand the principles and then strive to find their applications in daily life .
Considering the nature of the examination the tactics must be to focus on greater rather than intensive coverage. On is expected to know everything at the same time. However, only basics of each of the discipline are needed, so aspirants study basic concepts and facts as possible, avoiding the in depth preparations at Prelims stage.
The Prelims Paper II (CSAT) assesses comprehension, abstract reasoning, analysis competency, problem solving ability, judgment and decision making ability of the candidates. Unlike paper 1 where quantity of questions is a major determinant for the static section, paper 2 cannot be tamed without solving dynamic questions that requires on the spot mental ability.
Paper-II Syllabus comprises of seven subjects and is in the nature of Aptitude Test.
There are simple preparation tips to score well in the CSAT (Prelims)-PAPER II:
Current Affairs questions are asked from the core disciplines or say subjects, for example, science and technology, Polity, History, Geography, Economics, and environment. So we must give importance to current affairs from all perspectives, i.e. subjects, Prelim, Main and Personality Test.
These questions can be asked based on Government Initiatives/Policies, Policies of India which have international importance- Look East Policy, International Institutions- IMF, WB, UNSC, etc. International Agreements- Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), etc. Human Rights Issues, Social Sector Initiatives, Sustainable Development, etc.
To bring in more clarity on this aspect, we would illustrate ate with a few examples.
Current Events – Geography
Q.1 With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. IOD phenomenon is characterized by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.
2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’ s impact on the monsoon.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
If you go through UPSC questions asked in previous years on Current Events and match the syllabus, you will find a correlation between core-subjects, such as History, Economics, Polity, Geography, Science and Tech or Environment and questions in GS Paper- I. The concept and facts asked in these questions are based on analytical aspect of contemporary issues and development in core-subjects appeared in daily newspapers. So, when you read newspaper, you should have all the core subjects in mind to note down the contemporary issues and development appearing in daily news.
Sources for Current Events:
History is divided into 3 segments- Ancient, Medieval and modern.
Trends of previous years questions
Recent trends show that number of questions asked in history segment varies from 13 to 20. So, it is better to analyse previous segment-wise (Ancient, Medieval, Modern & Culture) and then plan which segment should be given weightage as per analysis. More weightage is given to Modern, then to Ancient and least to medieval history as per question pattern analysis.
1. Various revolts./movements/agitations (like 1857 revolt, tebhaga Peasant
Movement, Home Rule Movement, Quit India Movement, etc) based on:
Q. Which one of the following is a very significant aspect of the Champaran Satyagraha ?
(a) Active all- India participation of lawyers, students and women in the National Movement
(b) Active involvement of Dalit and Tribal communities of India in the National Movement
(c) Joining of peasant unrest to India’s National Movement
(d) Drastic decrease in the cultivation of plantation crops and commercial
Geography covers physical, Social and Economic Geography of India and the World.
You should make a Mind-Map of different topics given in the syllabus of Prelim and analyse the previous years questions asked. Your study should be based on the nature and number of questions asked from different segments year-wise.
Trends of previous years questions
As per the recent trend, atleast 15-20% weightage is given to Geography.
Questions asked in previous years exam are based on:
Q. “Momentum for Change : Climate Neutral Now” is an initiative launched by
(a) The Intergovernmentai Panel on Climate Change
(b) The UNEP Secretariat
(c) The UNFCCC Secretariat
(d) The World Meteorological Organization
India’s physiography can be divided into:
Q. When you travel in Himalayas, you will see the following:
1. Deep gorges
2. U-turn river courses
3. Parallel mountain ranges
4. Steep gradients causing land-sliding
Which of the above can be said to be the evidences for Himalayas being young fold mountains?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Polity covers Constitution of India, Indian Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights, Issues, etc. First you prepare the Mind-Map of each Chapter given in the syllabus and then analyse the nature and number of questions asked in previous years HS Paper-I from Polity. If your study follows the trend analysis, your success is assured.
Trends of previous years questions
Q. Consider the following statements:
1. The Parliament of India can place a particular law in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of India (a)
2. The validity of a law placed in the Ninth Schedule cannot be examined by any court and no judgement can be made on it.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
It covers Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
Questions asked in this segment are based on your conceptual understanding of macro-economics. So, conceptual clarity is the most important factor to understand any topic, policy, data, etc. in Economics.
Your analysis of previous years questions will help you to know about the nature and types of questions asked from the Economic segment. If you apply your analysis in you preparation, you feel confident in your strengths to crack the exam.
Trends of previous years questions
Q. Consider the following statements
1. The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Review Committee Report has recommended a debt to GDP ratio of 60% for the general (combined) government by 2023, comprising 40% for the Central Government and 20% for the State Governments.
2. The Central Government has domestic liabilities of 21% of GDP as compared to that of 49% of GDP of the State Governments.
3. As per the Constitution of India, it is mandatory for a State to take the Central Government’s consent for raising any loan if the former owes any outstanding liabilities to the latter.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
India is a country of diverse culture. So, it covers various cultural aspects from ancient, medieval to modern times. Indian comprises of Art, Paintings, Miniature, Architecture and Literature.
And make Mind-Map, Charts and tables of topics in chronological order to keep in memory.
Sources to prepare from:
Q. With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements:
1. Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.
2. Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution : (b)
Recent trends show that the UPSC is constantly importance to ‘Environment Section’. There can be various reasons for It from inclusion of Indian Forest Services (IFoS) to increasing worldwide environmental concern. Trends of previous years questions
Areas of Coverage
Analysis of Previous year questions shows the following topics coverage in CSAT Paper-I:
Issues related to Environmental Ecology, e.g. ecological terms like Ecotone, Ecological niche, ecosystem, effects of environmental deterioration, how it affects human being, food chain in the ecosystem.
Sources for Study
NCERT book : geography from 6th and 12th and biology,12th(old and new)
ICSE book : class 10th and 11th
Newspaper: the Hindu
Magazine: Science Reporter
Q. Which of the following has/have shrunk immensely/dried up in the recent past due to human activates ?
1. Aral Sea 2. Black Sea
3. Lake Baikal
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(c) 2 only (d) 1 and 3
Prelim syllabus gives a wide coverage to Science and Technology. As per trend analysis of previous year questions asked recently, UPSC gives importance to dynamic-cum-analytical aspect of Science and Technology. The questions asked are based on basic scientific concept and facts related to latest development in research focused on issues, phenomena, their application, scope, merits, demerits, in day to day life of human beings, animals, plants, physical changes, etc. Nature of questions is based on static scientific laws and dynamic ones. Static nature of concepts and facts are covered in NCERT books-VI to XII, but dynamic nature of concepts and facts can be searched out in Newspapers, magazines, and on different sites of NET.
Trends of previous years questions
Q. Consider the following phenomena:
1. Light is affected by gravity.
2. The Universe is constantly expanding.
3. Matter warps its surrounding space-time.
Which of the above is/are the prediction/predictions of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, often discussed in media?
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
The IAS Main Exam happens to be a vital part of Civil Services Exam. One has to be vigilant of all the dimensions involved while appearing for the IAS Main. Revolutionary changes were introduced during this very year, i.e. 2013, in both pattern and syllabus of examination. And in August, UPSC has introduced one more change that is profoundly going to change the way Main Exam has been attempted and maneuvered by candidates so far. Below is presented the text that has been introduced in the Civil Service Main (CSM). Instruction document that is released by the UPSC after result of Preliminary paper that contains important instructions regarding the filling of Main form. “Candidates should note that instead of separate Question Paper and Answer Book, a consolidated Question Paper-cum-Answer Book, having space below each part/sub part of a question shall be provided to them for writing the answers. Candidates shall be required to attempt answer to the part/sub-part of a question strictly within the pre-defined space. Any attempt outside the pre-defined space shall not be evaluated.
First important thing will be how you manage your time, thoughts and writing style. Somebody who writes in larger font size will be at a disadvantage because of the lesser number of words he can fit in the space. At the same time, we would caution not to indulge in micro-lettering that can frustrate and irritate the evaluator. Rather an optimum letter size is suggested, the same can be decided based on your flair of writing. So, one should practice lots of writing.
Since it’s a subjective paper, one keep in mind two components: ‘process’ and ‘content’. Process includes how to write a good essay and content involves what to write in a good essay that is subject matter. Writing essay in a right way requires a multipronged strategy. One must consider following points:
Interdisciplinary Approach in Study
In order to answer holistic nature of questions asked in IAS exam, specially in Main, aspirants are advised to develop interdisciplinary approach in study different subjects and topics. It will help to understand all dimensions associated with the topic.
The interdisciplinary approach is a method of integrating different informations from different subjects, headings topics to answer different nature of questions asked in the IAS Exam. For example topic can be studied or analysed on political, economic, social or scientific ground or parameters. It can also be based on its problems, issues, application, impacts, etc.
For instance, Government decision in changing previous economic policy has short and long term implication. Its impacts can be social, economic, political, demographic or scientific.
In developing interdisciplinary approach in study, aspirants need to develop and expand their outlook towards topics keeping in mind all aspects and dimensions of the topic. For this, topics can be related with different happening and changes that occur around in society, environment, polity, etc.
Aspirants often face trouble when see the extensive syllabus of Main exam. So various points should be followed:
How to Prepare Notes
Aspirants might have heard a hundred times about the importance of taking small or micro notes for the IAS exam. But how do they do it in a manner that the notes are concise, effective, readable in a short time, all at once. After all they will need to go through these small notes for IAS exam before the preliminary and/or the Main in just a few days or even hours.
There are several good reasons for making own notes:
There are different methods of making notes and one should decide which method suits him/her the best. Two common methods of making notes are:
Linear Method: It is a method in which one condenses the material after reading ing, using headings and sub headings and sub headings and jotting down the most important points. This method works best when making notes from a book where the material is already properly organized. But one disadvantage of this method is that it ends up copying a lot of material from the book which defeats the very purpose of condensing.
Pattern Method: For this, begin the topic at the centre of the page. Each line radiating from it represents branch of the main idea. Each point is written as briefly as possible using a key word or a phrase. It is a better method to adopt because.
But this method has some disadvantages as well. If there are too many facts and too much of information, the pattern becomes messy and over-crowded. Using key words can remind the of basic ideas but when it comes to remembering details, this method cannot be sufficient.
Therefore the most effective way of making good notes from the sources available is to use a combination of these two linear and pattern methods. One important thing to remember is that for many subjects, notes will have to include diagrams, charts, tables and mind-maps. They
Guidelines For Essay Writing
Startling Information: This information must be true. It could simply be a pertinent fact that explicitly illustrates the points the contestants wish to make. if they use a piece of startling information, follow it with a few sentences.
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